WIM | Dr. Kosali Simon and Dr. Coady Wing, “How Has COVID-19 Affected Job Markets Worldwide?” (February 26, 2021)
This presentation starts by discussing how COVID-19 has affected job markets worldwide, key questions, methods, and data sources used.
I will then focus on the research my colleagues and I have conducted in the last year, paying most attention to the focal paper using Current Population Survey monthly data from the US.
In that paper, we make several contributions to understanding the socio-demographic ramifications of the COVID-19 epidemic and policy responses on employment outcomes of subgroups in the U.S., benchmarked against two previous recessions. First, monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data show greater declines in employment in April and May 2020 (relative to February) for Hispanics, younger workers, and those with high school degrees and some college. Between April and May, all the demographic subgroups considered regained some employment. Reemployment in May was broadly proportional to the employment drop that occurred through April, except for Blacks. Second, we show that job loss was larger in occupations that require more interpersonal contact and that cannot be performed remotely. Third, we show that the extent to which workers in various demographic groups sort (pre-COVID-19) into occupations and industries can explain a sizeable portion of the gender, race, and ethnic gaps in recent unemployment. However, there remain substantial unexplained differences in employment losses across groups. We also demonstrate the importance of tracking workers who report having a job but are absent from work, in addition to tracking employed and unemployed workers.
We conclude with a discussion of policy priorities and future research needs implied by the disparities in labor market losses from the COVID-19 crisis that we identify.
Kosali Simon is a nationally-known health economist. At IU, she is Associate Vice Provost for Health Sciences, and a Herman B. Wells Endowed Professor in the O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs.
Coady Wing is an Associate Professor in the O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs.